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ID number:  ECM 1596
Named collection:  The Eton Myers Collection
Title / Object name:  Hapi (Four Sons of Horus Amulet)
Object type:  Amulet
Culture:  Egyptian
Date made:  Late New Kingdom to early Third Intermediate Period (ca. 1295-945 BCE)
Collector:  Myers, William Joseph
Materials:  Faience
Measurements:  overall: 14.69 cm x 4.59 cm x 0.98 cm (H x W x D)
Provenance:  Possibly from Tuna el-Gebel, Middle Egypt
ECM1596.i.jpg

Large polychrome faience mummy amulet of Hapi facing to viewer's left. Hapi's baboon head is black with eye picked out in white and wears a blue tripartite wig. The white mummiform body has a schematised black collar. The base is blue with black stripes. Three suspension loops are on the back for affixing to a mummy bead net shroud.

Bibliography:  For more information about the mummy shroud and its amulets, see:
S. Chapman. 2016. 'The Four Sons of Horus: Guardians of the Dead' in S. Boonstra (ed.) Objects Come to Life, Birmingham Egyptology.

Friedman, F.D. (ed.) 1998. Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Faience. London and Providence (page 155, Entry No. 157).

Reeves, N. (ed.) 2008. Egyptian Art at Eton College and Durham University: Catalogue of a loan exhibition to Japan, 24 February-30 November 2008. With contributions from C. Barclay, T. Hardwick, S. Quirke, N. Reeves, J. Ruffle,
H. Schneider, and S. Spurr (Page 169, Entry No. 229).

Spurr, S., Reeves, N., and Quirke, S. 1999. Egyptian Art at Eton College: Selections from the Myers Museum. Windsor and New York (page 43, Entry No. 63).

Notes:  This amulet depicts the ape-headed mummiform god, Hapi, one of the four sons of Horus. Each of these gods was charged with guarding an internal organ; Hapi safeguarded the lungs.

Each of the Four Sons of Horus amulets (ECM 1593-1596) were made of a single piece of moulded faience with blue and black glaze applied to the front side. The reverse has been pierced in three places (top, middle, and bottom) to create a series of holes allowing it to be sewn into a bead-net funerary shroud. The four sons of Horus were placed over the mummy's abdomen, as these gods protected the internal organ. ECM 1593-1596 originally belonged to the same mummy as the Nut mummy amulet ECM 1478 (also in collection) and a winged scarab ECM 817a-c (currently on loan from Eton College to Johns Hopkins University)

3 Related Media Items

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1 Related People

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Myers, William Joseph
British
1858-08
1899-10-30
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